MSc in Medicine

Top 142 Masters of Science in Medicine 2017/2018

Medicine

The completion of a Master of Science degree, commonly abbreviated MSc, is preceded by the rigorous study and mastery of a chosen discipline. Conferment of the diploma is an accomplishment that allows you to pursue work or further education in the field.

What is an MSc in Medicine? An MSc in Medicine is a program that prepares students to study, observe and eventually practice medicine. The program is generalized and allows students to focus on the broad application of medicine in healthcare rather than specializing in a narrower field. The courses you may take include Biology, Anatomy and Physiology, Medical Practices and Procedures and Patient Care Principles. In addition to these classes, you can expect to enroll in an internship or clinical experience program that takes place in a healthcare setting. This will give you the opportunity to practice the medical concepts learned in your coursework.

Since an MSc in Medicine is designed to be a general graduate-level course of study, it benefits students by giving them the foundational knowledge needed to practice in any healthcare setting. You may also find that its general nature allows for the opportunity to explore more specific interests later.

The cost of attendance for the program will depend on a variety of factors. If you would like to obtain a summary of the tuition and fees, contacting the admissions office of the school you wish to attend is the best method of doing so.

An MSc in Medicine should provide you with the knowledge, training and experience needed to pursue a position as a healthcare provider. Additional training and licensure will be required for most specialized positions, but the degree may make it easier to complete those steps. You might also find that you can work in a laboratory or government agency with the degree, but if you want to work outside of a hands-on setting, you will likely be able to find work teaching or writing on the topic of medicine.

Some institutions allow students to earn the MSc in Medicine degree through online or part-time classes. To learn more, search for your program below and contact directly the admission office of the school of your choice by filling in the lead form.

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MSc in Haematology and Transfusion Science

Manchester Metropolitan University
Campus Full time Part time 1 - 3 years August 2018 United Kingdom Manchester + 1 more

The course is designed to give graduates specialist knowledge (both theoretical and practical) of the strategies and techniques of haematology and transfusion science as practised in research and clinical contexts. [+]

Master of Science in Medicine. The course is designed to give graduates specialist knowledge (both theoretical and practical) of the strategies and techniques of haematology and transfusion science as practised in research and clinical contexts. Graduates will gain up-to-date, relevant and applied experience of haematology and transfusion science, acquire in-depth knowledge together with a broad knowledge of the subject base, and acquire skills for practice at Higher Specialist Level. The completion of a research project enables the graduate to understand the process and communication of scientific enquiry. This degree is accredited by the Institute of Biomedical Science. Features and benefits of the course Our postgraduate Biomedical Science, Medical Microbiology, Cellular Pathology, Clinical Biochemistry and Haematology & Transfusion degree programmes are accredited by the Institute of Biomedical Science. Our biomedical research group is amongst the top 12 in the UK. In the 2014 national Research Excellence Framework, biomedical science research was rated highly with some of our research rated as world leading. Our Centre for Biomedicine represent one of the highest concentrations of health research excellence in the UK. We have an international reputation for research into the characteristics, limitations and adaptability of the human motor system in health and disease through an integrative approach that ranges from molecular biology to whole body studies of human movement. The School offers excellent facilities including specialist laboratories for blood biochemistry, biomechanics, motor control, exercise performance, cell & molecular biology and tissue culture. We collaborate extensively with hospitals in Greater Manchester and can offer... [-]

Master of Science: Clinical Research and Product Development

University of North Carolina Wilmington Online
Online Full time Part time 3 - 4 years September 2018 USA USA Online + 1 more

The UNCW Clinical Research Program offers a totally online Master of Science degree in Clinical Research and Product Development. The Program provides a didactic and rigorous curriculum that prepares graduates for mid- to upper-level roles in the biopharmaceutical clinical research industry. [+]

Master of Science: Clinical Research and Product Development The UNCW Clinical Research Program offers a totally online Master of Science degree in Clinical Research and Product Development. The Program provides a didactic and rigorous curriculum that prepares graduates for mid- to upper-level roles in the biopharmaceutical clinical research industry. Graduates work in biopharmaceutical companies, contract research organizations, clinical research investigator sites, academic medical centers, government agencies, niche service providers, and other associated organizations in research teams formed to conduct the clinical trials necessary to move new drugs, biologics, and biomedical devices through the regulatory process to reach regulatory approval and post-marketing studies required for drug safety and used for label/market expansion. This is not a laboratory-based degree. An understanding of the four phases of clinical research involving human subjects is fundamental to all coursework. The importance of laws, regulations, guidance, and Good Clinical Practice is emphasized throughout the curriculum. Business aspects of the industry, particularly project management and market competition, are also covered. The Clinical Research Management Concentration is offered entirely online providing students with the flexibility to pursue the degree from any location with internet access. The degree provides a didactic and rigorous curriculum that prepares individuals to participate in the science and business of developing health care products and protocols, from discovery to market and human utilization. Emphasis is placed on clinical research in biopharmaceutical and device development. The degree is offered entirely online providing students with the flexibility to pursue the degree from any location. Learning Outcomes:... [-]

MSc Infection Control

University of Essex Online
Online Part time 24 months Open Enrollment United Kingdom Colchester

The MSc Infection Control online has been designed for nurses and other health professionals who have an infection control role in their workplace but is open to anyone with an interest in this area. The course aligns with the framework of competencies outlined by the Infection Prevention Society and will develop your expertise in several key areas of best practice. Delivered as an online course, the MSc Infection Control course gives you the... [+]

Master of Science in Medicine. MSc Infection Control The MSc Infection Control online has been designed for nurses and other health professionals who have an infection control role in their workplace but is open to anyone with an interest in this area. The course aligns with the framework of competencies outlined by the Infection Prevention Society and will develop your expertise in several key areas of best practice. Delivered as an online course, the MSc Infection Control course gives you the flexibility to study whilst you continue to work full-time. It also allows you to interact with other infection control specialists spread throughout the UK and internationally. Why study this subject? The demand for Infection Control courses has increased in recent years due to super-bug and contagious illness outbreaks such as SMRA, swine flu and Ebola highlighting the need for more effective infection control. The fundamental underpinning of the MSc is that prevention is better than the cure and it is this mentality that will hopefully make outbreaks a thing of the past. Preventing and controlling the spread of infection is one of the key priorities for hospital staff, environmental health officers and healthcare professionals not only in the UK but throughout the world. This advanced-level health masters course has been designed to provide you with the latest knowledge and understanding of infection control practice, giving you the ability to develop and implement strategies to reduce the spread of hospital acquired infection and respond appropriately to an outbreak of infection... [-]

Master of Science in Medical Physics

Duke Kunshan University
Campus Full time 1 - 2 years September 2018 China Kunshan USA Durham + 2 more

Become a leader in the emerging field of Medical Physics, fusing your expertise in physics with improved medical care. This is a dynamic profession that applies the concepts of physics to the diagnosis and treatment of human disease, with career paths that include academic, research and clinical settings. With an advanced degree in Medical Physics, you will be empowered to contribute cutting-edge medical care, whether in China or diverse international spheres. [+]

Become a leader in the emerging field of Medical Physics, fusing your expertise in physics with improved medical care. This is a dynamic profession that applies the concepts of physics to the diagnosis and treatment of human disease, with career paths that include academic, research and clinical settings. With an advanced degree in Medical Physics, you will be empowered to contribute cutting-edge medical care, whether in China or diverse international spheres. And there’s no better place to receive your professional training than through a program that delivers state-of-the-art classroom instruction and clinical exposure from Duke University, one of the most preeminent educational institutions in the world, with carefully designed study in the United States and China. Build upon your talent for physics and apply it to the real-life needs of medicine- with a Master of Science in Medical Physics (MSc-MP) at Duke Kunshan University. Students studying in the program will specialize in one of following academic tracks or choose a multi-track path: Diagnostic Imaging Physics Radiation Therapy Physics Nuclear Medicine Physics The curriculum blends in-classroom instruction with clinical practicum training, fieldwork, and thesis research. Students gain clinical exposure and basic clinical physics training with state-of-the-art technology and treatment methods at Duke University Medical Center and at partner hospitals in China. The program also requires independent research under the guidance of faculty working at the forefront of their fields. Pre-requisites for Entering Program Applicants to Duke Kunshan University’s graduate programs must hold the equivalent of a U.S. bachelor's degree from an... [-]

MSc in Molecular Medicine

Trinity College Dublin
Campus Full time Part time 1 - 2 years September 2018 Ireland Dublin + 1 more

The M.Sc. in Molecular Medicine programme offers a comprehensive and thoroughly up to date overview of the area, provided by experts in their fields. It will provide participants with the knowledge to evaluate the literature and perform independent research. The programme covers everything from basic science to highly specialised topics, practical work and a research project. [+]

MSc in Molecular Medicine

There has been an enormous growth in our understanding of how basic biological processes take place at a molecular level in recent years. This has been exemplified most notably by the sequencing of the human genome. These developments are continuing at an explosive pace and with them comes an ever sharper focus on the essential molecular mechanisms underlying the normal functioning of cells, tissues and organisms themselves. Molecular Medicine is a new field that exploits advances in molecular and cellular biology to characterise how normal cellular processes either fail, or are subverted, in disease. Increasingly, medical practitioners, professionals and researchers in the health and life sciences need to be able to understand and evaluate advances in molecular medicine in order to keep abreast with developments in their fields. The M.Sc. in Molecular Medicine programme offers a comprehensive and thoroughly up to date overview of the area, provided by experts in their fields. It will provide participants with the knowledge to evaluate the literature and perform independent research. The programme covers everything from basic science to highly specialised topics, practical work and a research project.... [-]


Master of Sciences in Medical Sciences (MSMS)

Ponce Health Sciences University
Campus Full time Part time 1 - 2 years February 2018 Puerto Rico Ponce + 1 more

The Master of Science in Medical Sciences (MSMS) is an integrated, multidisciplinary interdepartmental program in the basic medical sciences that provide trainees with a broad-based one-year core curriculum designed to improve their academic credentials for admission to professional schools. [+]

The Master of Science in Medical Sciences (MSMS) is an integrated, multidisciplinary interdepartmental program in the basic medical sciences that provide trainees with a broad-based one-year core curriculum designed to improve their academic credentials for admission to professional schools. Curriculum Admission Requirements Bachelor’s degree from a regionally accredited college or university including the following coursework: Courses Credits General Biology I & II with Labs 8 General Chemistry I & II with Labs 8 Organic Chemistry I & II with Labs 8 Physics I & II with Labs 8 Mathematics 6 Behavioral and Social Sciences* 6 Biochemistry Course 3 Spanish 3 English 3 *Psychology, Sociology, Anthropology, Political Sciences, and/or Economics Fully bilingual in English and Spanish (read, write, speak and understand) Cumulative GPA and Science GPA of ≥ 2.7 MCAT scores The completion of a graduate degree in science or health allied field may be used to substitute the GPA and science GPA of the bachelor’s degree. Application deadline: JULY 10 [-]

MSc in Epidemiology

Elevate Health
Online Full time Part time 334 - 6 years September 2018 Netherlands Netherlands Online + 1 more

The aim of the MSc Epidemiology programmes is to provide students with extensive knowledge and practical skills in patient-oriented research design, implementation, quantitative analysis and its application to human or veterinary medicine and public health. [+]

Master of Science in Medicine. Welcome to the international Master in Epidemiology Program at Utrecht University. Epidemiology is a scientific discipline increasingly asked for in clinical (human, pharmaceutical or veterinary) research, industry and policymaking. With ‘evidence based medicine’ setting new standards, specialists are needed in design, data collection, analysis and interpretation of epidemiological and health research. We offer a high level of education via our graduate and postgraduate programmes, and topic-specific short courses for those looking to expand their knowledge. Information about our Masters programme The research MSc Epidemiology programmes are organised within the Utrecht University Graduate School of Life Sciences. The aim of the MSc Epidemiology programmes is to provide students with extensive knowledge and practical skills in patient-oriented research design, implementation, quantitative analysis and its application to human or veterinary medicine and public health. The knowledge and skills gained form a solid basis for health research and disease control programmes, including application in developing countries. The master Epidemiology equals the registration demands for Epidemiologist A and knows three variants : MSc Epidemiology (120 EC) 2 years programme, for students holding a bachelor degree in one of the fields mentioned below. MSc Epidemiology Postgraduate, face-to-face (90 EC) 1.5 years programme, for students holding a master degree in one of the fields mentioned below. MSc Epidemiology Postgraduate, Online (90 EC) 3-5 years programme, for researchers/clinicians holding a master degree or working in one of the fields mentioned below. Future MSc Epidemiology (Postgraduate) students are expected to hold a degree in... [-]

MSc in Medical Physics

The Open University
Online Full time Part time 1 - 7 years August 2018 United Kingdom Buckingham Milton Keynes + 2 more

This MSc course is for those who want to explore aspects of medical physics, in particular medical imaging and the physics of radiotherapy, at postgraduate level. If you have a background in physics/engineering and currently work, or wish to work, in a clinical setting, there is an additional pathway through the qualification which is accredited by the... [+]

MSc in Medical Physics This MSc course is for those who want to explore aspects of medical physics, in particular medical imaging and the physics of radiotherapy, at postgraduate level. If you have a background in physics/engineering and currently work, or wish to work, in a clinical setting, there is an additional pathway through the qualification which is accredited by the UK Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM). The MSc includes two compulsory 60-credit taught modules and a project module. The two taught modules use the innovative teaching methods pioneered by The Open University to provide you with a good knowledge of the subject as well as giving you a chance to explore a topic of your choice in further depth. The project module allows you to undertake a substantial piece of independent research based on the knowledge and skills you will have developed in the taught modules. If you are following the IPEM pathway you will need to make sure that your project is of a practical, investigative nature requiring laboratory work or computing. If you are on the IPEM pathway you will also have to study an additional 10-credit module. Learning outcomes The learning outcomes of this qualification are described in four areas: Knowledge and understanding Cognitive skills Practical and professional skills Key skills Career impact Completing this qualification will equip you with a base of postgraduate level knowledge and understanding in medical physics as well as providing you with a set of key transferable skills... [-]

Master of Science (MSc) in Veterinary Epidemiology

The University of Edinburgh - College of Medicine & Veterinary Medicine
Online Full time Part time 3 - 6 years August 2018 United Kingdom Edinburgh + 1 more

Veterinary epidemiology is a key component in a number of the global grand challenges relating to disease control, food security and climate change. Consequently, there is a need to improve our ability to understand, predict and respond to patterns and dynamics of disease and to control outbreaks. [+]

Master of Science in Medicine. Programme description Veterinary epidemiology is a key component in a number of the global grand challenges relating to disease control, food security and climate change. Consequently, there is a need to improve our ability to understand, predict and respond to patterns and dynamics of disease and to control outbreaks. The R(D)SVS and SRUC partnership creates the greatest concentration of research power in veterinary and agricultural sciences in the UK. The MSc draws on this wealth of experience and research activity to provide scientific knowledge of the fundamental biological processes (e.g. behaviour, physiology, immunology, ecology) and environmental and farming management practices (e.g. husbandry, nutrition, livestock trade) driving disease transmission, persistence, prevalence and spread in livestock production systems. This enables in-depth understanding of complex environmental patterns of disease, which facilitates prediction of disease risk and control. This multidisciplinary systems approach will provide you with the skills to make significant contributions to tackling food security, climate change and disease control in your role as an animal health professional. By the end of the programme you will not only have a detailed understanding of the biology driving disease persistence and prevalence, but also how the biology scales up from individuals to populations. You will understand how this interacts with agricultural management practices to determine the efficacy of disease control strategies and livestock production (i.e. interdisciplinary systems thinking and communication). Furthermore, the systems approach offers a way to frame disease challenges and problem solve disease risk at a range of... [-]

MSc in Biomedical Sciences (Immunology)

University of Westminster - Faculty of Science and Technology
Campus Full time Part time 1 - 5 years United Kingdom London

The course will allow you to expand your understanding of immunology, immunopathology and immunotherapy, to further develop skills in analytical approaches to immunodiagnosis and molecular therapeutics, as well as enhance your competence in the design and execution of a laboratory based project. You will be able to take a proactive role in research, development, evaluation and implementation of current immunological techniques while perceiving the subject in the broader perspective of health care and scientific progress. [+]

The course will allow you to expand your understanding of immunology, immunopathology and immunotherapy, to further develop skills in analytical approaches to immunodiagnosis and molecular therapeutics, as well as enhance your competence in the design and execution of a laboratory based project. You will be able to take a proactive role in research, development, evaluation and implementation of current immunological techniques while perceiving the subject in the broader perspective of health care and scientific progress. The scope of the modules included will ensure a breadth of knowledge appropriate for the scientific and professional needs of practising immunologists, at the same time making use of your knowledge and experience. This course is designed so that you can plan your own taught programme to match your interests and experience by combining core and optional modules with emphasis on therapeutics, diagnostics, haematology or public health. Modules The following modules are indicative of what you will study on this course. Core modules Cell Signalling and Genetics This module provides up-to-date information on cell signalling processes coupling surface receptor engagement to changes in gene expression. Transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms are discussed in relation to selected cell-signalling pathways responsible for controlling cell functions such as cell cycle, cell differentiation and cell death. Examples of defective cell signalling through inherited and somatically acquired mutations in signalling components will be highlighted in relation to human disease. Immunopathology You will analyse and discuss cellular and molecular aspects of innate and adaptive immune responses, and advances in modern methods... [-]

Master of Science in Health Sciences specializing in Epidemiology

Erasmus MC Netherlands Institute for Health Sciences - Erasmus University Rotterdam
Campus Full time Part time 1 year August 2018 Netherlands Rotterdam + 1 more

Explore the potential of medical research. In upcoming years, important discoveries will be made in the health sciences. Take part in unearthing these discoveries. [+]

Master of Science in Medicine. Explore the potential of medical research. In upcoming years, important discoveries will be made in the health sciences. Take part in unearthing these discoveries. Get the methodological, theoretical, and statistical foundation you need to design and carry out your own practical research - and publish your results. Work in the stimulating environment of the Netherlands Institute for Health Sciences (NIHES). Attend lectures by prominent scientists. Choose your own specialization, and do cutting-edge research with the support of a personal tutor. Learn state-of-the-art research methods, and how to study the literature on an issue, analyze data, and publish in high-impact journals. NIHES, at the Erasmus Medical Center, is a top ranked institution with a strong international dimension. Let us be your springboard to a career in international research, public health, health policy, health economics, clinical medicine, or pharmaceutical research. The Master of Science in Health Sciences - Epidemiology programme focuses on training students who are well educated in research methodology. The programme provides you with a solid theoretical, methodological and statistical basis for designing and implementing a research project and will teach you how to best publish the results of your research project. Your individual research project will be supervised by leading professors and senior researchers, with the objective of delivering a high quality scientific research paper. Learn about: life course epidemiology, causal inference in observational studies, biological risk factors of major diseases, effectiveness of treatment regimes, development of frailty among the elderly, and more. This... [-]

MSc Public Health

University of Salford
Campus Full time Part time 1 - 3 years August 2018 United Kingdom Manchester + 1 more

The MSc Public Health adopts a multi-disciplinary, evidence-based approach, focusing on the social determinants of health. [+]

Gain a public health qualification that explores the social determinants of health Learn the skills which match the Public Health Skills and Knowledge Framework (2013) Develop a multidisciplinary, evidence-based approach to public health Part-time study option International students can apply COURSE SUMMARY On this course, you'll receive instruction in core public health skills including epidemiology, statistics and research methods. As well as giving you the opportunity to gain in-depth knowledge of a range of topics; evidence-based public health and 21st Century Global Public Health Challenges. The focus of the curriculum is on the social determinants of health (which makes it unique among the other Greater Manchester universities). This course aligns to the 9 key competencies of the UK Faculty of Public Health Curriculum. In this regard, the course will equip you with the core skills you'll need to to effectively interpret and understand key areas of health research and how this can be used to inform and drive policy. You'll also learn how to use this insight to inform and drive public health. During your time with us, you can tap into the expertise and skills of our partners, who include external public health practitioners and research staff from across the University. Whilst the programme does not include a placement, or work experience, students have the opportunity to work on external or internal applied research projects as part of their dissertation. One of our strengths is the small class size (typically less than 30 students per year) which enables close... [-]

Master of Science in Prosthetics & Orthotics

Alabama State University The Harold Lloyd Murphy Graduate School
Campus Full time 2 years August 2018 USA Montgomery

Alabama State University the only university in the state of Alabama to offer the Master of Science program in prosthetics and orthotics and one of 13 colleges in the nation to offer the degree. With a Master of Science in Prosthetics and Orthotics (MSPO), you can make a difference in the lives of others. [+]

Master of Science in Medicine. Alabama State University the only university in the state of Alabama to offer the Master of Science program in prosthetics and orthotics and one of 13 colleges in the nation to offer the degree. With a Master of Science in Prosthetics and Orthotics (MSPO), you can make a difference in the lives of others. The difference starts at Alabama State University. The MSPO program is dedicated to the collaboration, promotion, and advancement of patient care standards, research, and advocacy in the field of prosthetics and orthotics. Our curriculum is designed to prepare students to be effective practitioners in both prosthetics and orthotics, through a strong science-based program coupled with applied clinical and research experiences. Curriculum Year 1, Semester 1, Fall HSC 5001 Advanced Gross Human Anatomy (6) HSC 5002 Functional Anatomy (2) HSC 5003 Patient Care Concepts I (1) HSC 5004 Intro to Rehabilitation Professions (1) MPO5110 Intro to Orthotics, Prosthetics and Rehabilitation (2) MPO5190 Clinical Rotation I (1) Year 1, Semester 2, Spring HSC 5006 Intro to Research & Evidence-based (2) Practice HSC 5010 Patient Care Concepts II (2) HSC 5011 Biomechanics (2) MPO5210 Lower Limb Orthotics I (3) MPO5220 Lower Limb Prosthetics I (3) MPO5230 Neuroscience for P&O (2) MPO5290 Clinical Rotation II (1) Year 1, Semester 3, Summer HSC 5007 Research in the Health Professions (2) MPO5310 Spinal Orthotics (3) MPO5320 Cranial Seminar (1) MPO5340 Pathology in P&O (3) MPO5390 Clinical Rotation III (1) MPO5399 Professional Seminar in P&O (1) Year 2,... [-]

Master of Science in Medical Chemistry

University of Southern Denmark
Campus Full time 2 years September 2018 Denmark Odense

During the Medical chemistry programme, you will take a range of exciting and relevant courses which lie in the field between medical chemistry, health science... [+]

During the Medical chemistry programme, you will take a range of exciting and relevant courses which lie in the field between medical chemistry, health science and molecular biology as well as the health sector.The specialisation in Medical chemistry aims at employment in the pharmaceutical industry or other pharmaceutically-oriented companies where focus lies on the development of new medicines. In the programme, you supplement you basic education with a range of chemistry courses like spectroscopy and molecular modelling, as well as a variety of elective courses in for instance organic chemistry which provide experience in medical chemistry and development of new pharmaceuticals. You also take some health science classes in pharmacology and physiology. This part of the degree is based at the Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy (FKF).To finish your degree, you must complete a thesis within your specialty of medical chemistry or biopharmacology, where you will typically be assigned to a research team at the Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy or the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. The thesis can also be completed in collaboration with external partners, for instance in the industry. The thesis project takes one year and is finished with an academic paper and an oral defence.To be accepted into the master’s programme in Medical chemistry, you need to complete a relevant bachelor programme. ... [-]

MSc in Trauma Science

University of Birmingham - College of Medical and Dental Sciences
Campus Full time Part time 2 years August 2018 United Kingdom Birmingham + 1 more

The MSc Trauma Science programme is delivered by experts in the field, including those from civilian and military backgrounds at the forefront of trauma care and offers up-to-date knowledge of the science of trauma and its management. [+]

MSc in Trauma Science

DetailsThe overall aim of the programme is to enable exploration of the theoretical basis of trauma science in general with a route to particular specialisms depending on the cohort need. For example, there are clear paths of specialism for Physiotherapists, Nurses, Doctors, Engineers, Scientists and Military personnel.Using the process of scientific reasoning as its framework, the programme will integrate the key issues central to the theoretical aspects in these specialist areas with communication skills, management approaches, timely and reasoned decision making, identification of treatment options, best practice etc.You will have the opportunity to tailor your learning experiences and backgrounds to meet your own personal and professional needs. You will also have the opportunity to develop your leadership skills within a multidisciplinary setting that cares for trauma-afflicted patients. Enquiry-, evidence-based learning will be a key feature of the programme through problem based learning and journal clubs. In addition, you will have the opportunity to take part in a substantive research project, allowing you to develop research skills, project management, oral/poster presentation and writing a research dissertation. Research projects may be undertaken in an academic laboratory or can be in a clinical setting.... [-]