MSc in Biochemistry

Top 16 Masters of Science in Biochemistry 2017/2018

Biochemistry

An MSc (Master of Science) is a post-graduate degree conferred upon those who demonstrate high-level understanding of a specific discipline obtained through a course of intensive study. A master’s degree is normally a prerequisite for anyone intending to pursue a doctorate.

What is an MSc in Biochemistry? This degree builds upon scientific knowledge established in undergraduate studies. It aims to develop advanced understanding of the principles and applications of the chemical properties of molecules and processes in biology. It usually takes one to two years to obtain. Many programs have moved beyond lecture-based education, opting instead for research-focused training intended to prepare candidates to be more immediately competitive.

An MSc in Biochemistry could offer entry into a variety of fields from academic pursuits to research in the public or private sectors. Biochemistry is a discipline important to a variety of scientific and industrial applications, so holders of an MSc in Biochemistry tend to enjoy plentiful prospects, good job security, and competitive pay.

Completing an MSc in Biochemistry can vary widely in cost, depending on specific institutions and programs. Those considering obtaining the degree are recommended to contact the institutions they prefer in order to obtain details on tuition and fees.

Since biochemistry is instrumental in so many fields, holders of an MSc in Biochemistry have an array of career possibilities ahead of them. They may choose to work in the public sector as researchers or educators. They could find employment in the private sector helping to develop new drugs and industrial processes. They may find their callings in vaccine development. The degree is truly versatile.

Today’s student has a wealth of options when pursuing an MSc in Biochemistry. Across the world, institutions are offering myriad programs designed to accommodate diverse needs. Search for your program below and contact directly the admission office of the school of your choice by filling in the lead form.

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Master of Science in Nutrition - Online

Huntington College of Health Sciences
Online Part time Open Enrollment USA USA Online

HCHS’s Master of Science in Nutrition program offers a world-class graduate education, designed to help present and future health professionals understand and apply the science of nutrition. Core courses build upon students’ current knowledge of the human body and basic nutrition science and promote a greater understanding of the links between diet, lifestyle and health. [+]

Master of Science in Biochemistry. Student financial aid approved program for eligible students. HCHS’s Master of Science in Nutrition program offers a world-class graduate education, designed to help present and future health professionals understand and apply the science of nutrition. Core courses build upon students’ current knowledge of the human body and basic nutrition science and promote a greater understanding of the links between diet, lifestyle and health. The curriculum provides a solid foundation in advanced nutrition sciences with courses in clinical nutrition, medical nutrition therapy, nutrition research and current trends in the field of nutrition. Elective courses explore nutrition in the community and among other cultures, alternative and complementary medicine, and other health science related issues. A maximum of 18 credit hours may be transferred from previously completed graduate courses from other accredited institutions. Of those 18 credits, no more than 9 credits will be awarded for Prior Learning Experience and/or credit by examination. Student progress is evaluated through written and oral assignments, practical exercises, research projects, and written, proctored exams. The M.S. program culminates in a capstone project, which demonstrates learning achieved throughout the program. The capstone project may take different forms, including writing a thesis, designing and executing a practicum, or planning and executing a project. The M.S. in Nutrition program was designed with health care and allied health care professionals in mind. This program is ideal for registered dieticians who desire to expand their skills and knowledge, and increase their marketability in today’s competitive job market.... [-]

Biomedical Science

International Accelerator
Campus Full time Part time September 2018 USA Boston

The Master of Science in Biomedical Sciences program is for students who wish to further their knowledge in the field and prepare for professional careers in medical fields. This program also addresses the need of applicants who wish to pursue a teaching career in secondary schools, two-year and four-year colleges or other careers without an active research role. [+]

MS Biomedical Sciences (non-thesis) The Master of Science in Biomedical Sciences program is for students who wish to further their knowledge in the field and prepare for professional careers in medical fields. This program also addresses the need of applicants who wish to pursue a teaching career in secondary schools, two-year and four-year colleges or other careers without an active research role. The Biomedical Sciences (Non-Thesis) program requires a minimum of 33 credit hours of courses that includes 18 credit hours of required courses, 12 credit hours of electives, and 3 credit hours of capstone. Independent Learning In the final semester of study, non-thesis students will complete a capstone course that requires an in-depth current literature research report on a relevant subject, which will serve as the independent learning experience. Before graduation, the report should be submitted for consideration of publication as a review article in appropriate journals. The student will select a faculty adviser to chair a faculty committee of three members for evaluation of the report. Capstone Defense The capstone examination will be administered by the capstone committee. The student will present an oral presentation in the form of a 30-40 min seminar, followed by questions and discussion; and will be evaluated on the written report, oral presentation and the ability to answer questions. Comprehensive Examination Students must pass an oral comprehensive exam to qualify for the Master of Science degree. This oral comprehensive exam tests the understanding of basic concepts in the field and relevant applications. Teaching... [-]

Biomedical Engineering

International Accelerator
Campus Full time Part time September 2018 USA Boston

Many biomedical engineers, particularly those whom work in research labs, need a graduate degree. The Master of Science in Biomedical Engineering provides students and practicing engineers with the theoretical and practical experience needed to succeed. [+]

Master of Science in Biochemistry. Biomedical Engineering The Department of Biomedical Engineering offers advanced study for the degrees of Master of Science in Biomedical Engineering, and Doctor of Philosophy in Biomedical Engineering. A graduate degree in Biomedical Engineering can enhance your career opportunities or prepare you for further success in academia. Our graduates are prepared for academic, clinical, or industrial research and development in: Basic Research in Engineered Tissue Model Systems, Diagnostic Bioimaging and Sensor Systems, or Therapeutic and Reparative Neurotechnology. Master of Science in Biomedical Engineering Many biomedical engineers, particularly those whom work in research labs, need a graduate degree. The Master of Science in Biomedical Engineering provides students and practicing engineers with the theoretical and practical experience needed to succeed. Our program has three objectives: to provide highly trained professionals to serve in academic institutions, government agencies, research labs and manufacturing and service industries to provide minority students a great opportunity for advanced graduate studies to supply additional minority graduates to the Biomedical Engineering field, where they are highly underrepresented We offer two tracks: The Professional Track is for engineers currently practicing in the biomedical industry and students interested in pursuing a management career in biomedical industry. It requires 27 credit hours of course work, a three-credit hour capstone project, and a final oral examination. The Research Track prepares graduates for further study or a career in biomedical research. On this track you’ll need a minimum of 24 credit hours of course work, one semester of the Biomedical... [-]

Master of Health Sciences in Biomedical Engineering

University of Oulu
Campus Full time 2 years September 2018 Finland Oulu

The International Master’s Degree Programme in Biomedical Engineering (BME) is a two-year interdisciplinary programme focusing on biomechanics and medical imaging as well as biomedical signal and image processing. [+]

Biomedical Engineering, Master of Health Sciences Interdisciplinary knowledge in medical and health technologies from theoretical and practical perspective Capability to design and implement biomedical measurement systems and health applications, and process multimodal biomedical signals and images Opportunity to modify personal study profile according to your professional interests The applicant can select from the two alternatives. Degrees to be obtained: Master of Health Sciences,with focus on biomechanics, medical imaging and health technology applications Master of Science (Technology),with focus on biomedical signal and image processing, machine learning, and measurement and analysis of biomedical data The International Master’s Degree Programme in Biomedical Engineering (BME) is a two-year interdisciplinary programme focusing on biomechanics and medical imaging as well as biomedical signal and image processing. The programme will give you relevant skills and core knowledge of the latest methods, tools and technologies combined with issues such as: anatomy and physiology biomechanics biomedical measurements medical physics and imaging techniques biomedical signal and image processing machine learning e-Health health technology applications Finland has impressive health technology industry and its health care system is worldwide known. University of Oulu and the OuluHealth innovation ecosystem offer an excellent platform for research and development (R&D). The BME program is organized by internationally recognized high-quality research groupsin close collaboration with the Oulu University Hospital. The program and the international research groups have also cooperation with other health care organizations and health technology industry. Master graduate from the BME program typically works in different expert duties in industry, research, education, and health... [-]

MSc in Clinical Biochemistry

Manchester Metropolitan University
Campus Full time Part time 1 - 3 years August 2018 United Kingdom Manchester + 1 more

The course is designed to give graduates specialist knowledge (both theoretical and practical) of the strategies and techniques of clinical biochemistry as practised in research and clinical contexts. [+]

Master of Science in Biochemistry. The course is designed to give graduates specialist knowledge (both theoretical and practical) of the strategies and techniques of clinical biochemistry as practised in research and clinical contexts. Graduates will gain up-to-date, relevant and applied experience of clinical biochemistry, acquire in-depth knowledge together with a broad knowledge of the subject base and acquire skills for practice at Higher Specialist Level. The completion of a research project enables the graduate to understand the process and communication of scientific enquiry. Features and benefits of the course Our postgraduate Biomedical Science, Medical Microbiology, Cellular Pathology, Clinical Biochemistry and Haematology & Transfusion degree programmes are accredited by the Institute of Biomedical Science. Our biomedical research group is amongst the top 12 in the UK. In the 2014 national Research Excellence Framework, biomedical science research was rated highly with some of our research rated as world leading. Our Centre for Healthcare Science Research represent one of the highest concentrations of health research excellence in the UK. We have an international reputation for research into the characteristics, limitations and adaptability of the human motor system in health and disease through an integrative approach that ranges from molecular biology to whole body studies of human movement. The School offers excellent facilities including specialist laboratories for blood biochemistry, biomechanics, motor control, exercise performance, cell & molecular biology and tissue culture. We collaborate extensively with hospitals in Greater Manchester and can offer opportunities for research projects in clinically relevant areas. The programme includes opportunities... [-]

MSc in Medical Microbiology

Manchester Metropolitan University
Campus Full time Part time 1 - 3 years August 2018 United Kingdom Manchester + 1 more

This programme is designed to give graduates specialist knowledge (both theoretical and practical) of the strategies and techniques of medical microbiology as practised in research and clinical contexts. Graduates will gain up-to-date, relevant and applied experience of medical microbiology, acquire in-depth knowledge together with a broad knowledge of the subject base and acquire skills for practice at Higher Specialist level. [+]

This programme is designed to give graduates specialist knowledge (both theoretical and practical) of the strategies and techniques of medical microbiology as practised in research and clinical contexts. Graduates will gain up-to-date, relevant and applied experience of medical microbiology, acquire in-depth knowledge together with a broad knowledge of the subject base and acquire skills for practice at Higher Specialist level. The completion of a research project enables the graduate to understand the process and communication of scientific enquiry. This degree is accredited by the Institute of Biomedical Science. Features and benefits of the course Our postgraduate Biomedical Science, Medical Microbiology, Cellular Pathology, Clinical Biochemistry and Haematology & Transfusion degree programmes are accredited by the Institute of Biomedical Science. Our biomedical research group is amongst the top 12 in the UK. In the 2014 national Research Excellence Framework, biomedical science research was rated highly with some of our research rated as world leading. Our Centre for Biomedicine represent one of the highest concentrations of health research excellence in the UK. We have an international reputation for research into the characteristics, limitations and adaptability of the human motor system in health and disease through an integrative approach that ranges from molecular biology to whole body studies of human movement. The School offers excellent facilities including specialist laboratories for blood biochemistry, biomechanics, motor control, exercise performance, cell & molecular biology and tissue culture. We collaborate extensively with hospitals in Greater Manchester and can offer opportunities for research projects in clinically relevant areas. The... [-]

Master of Science in Life Science Technologies - Biomedical Engineering

Aalto University
Campus Full time 2 years August 2018 Finland Espoo Helsinki Pori Mikkeli + 3 more

Biomedical Engineering builds on a solid basis of physics and technology to characterize, monitor, image and influence biological systems. This major introduces the student to the physics of biological systems in order to efficiently measure, image, and model such systems. In addition, it provides the student with basic knowledge and skills needed for developing novel engineering solutions for diagnosis and treatment in health care. [+]

Master of Science in Biochemistry. Learn to apply engineering principles and design concepts to medical and biological data! Biomedical Engineering builds on a solid basis of physics and technology to characterize, monitor, image and influence biological systems. This major introduces the student to the physics of biological systems in order to efficiently measure, image, and model such systems. In addition, it provides the student with basic knowledge and skills needed for developing novel engineering solutions for diagnosis and treatment in health care. Biomedical Engineering is one of the six majors offered within the Master’s Programme in Life Science Technologies (LifeTech). The programme provides a multidisciplinary curriculum focusing on important aspects of current and emerging technologies for life sciences. Studies draw on fundamental and applied knowledge on these fields with close links to the research conducted in the participating Schools and Departments. Learning outcomes After completing the major, the student will be able to characterize biophysical systems by conceptual and quantitative models explain how the laws of physics enable and constrain the operation of biological systems follow the progress of biomedical engineering deepen his/her knowledge and skills of specific topics within biomedical engineering apply existing scientific knowledge of the field to research and development in the industry start translating new research results into product development in biomedical technology Recent thesis topics of Biomedical Engineering students include, e.g. Functional magnetic resonance imaging during natural viewing; Comparison of five methods for deformable, multi-modal image registration in prostate and pelvic area; Smart digital control... [-]

Master's Degree Programme in Molecular Biotechnology and Diagnostics

University of Turku Health and Biomedicine
Campus Full time 2 years August 2018 Finland Turku

The Master’s Degree Programme in Molecular Biotechnology and Diagnostics will equip you for a career in the exciting field of biotechnology and translational research. [+]

masters.utu.fi Master's Degree Programme in Molecular Biotechnology and Diagnostics Master the exciting field of biotechnology! The Master’s Degree Programme in Molecular Biotechnology and Diagnostics will equip you for a career in the exciting field of biotechnology and translational research. Here you will obtain extensive theoretical and practical expertise on central concepts and techniques in modern molecular biotechnology and diagnostics. You will also learn to apply the acquired knowledge in practice for the development of novel tools and methods for the detection molecular substances. The education is focused on the key technologies of diagnostics and molecular biology with opportunities to apply this knowledge both to medical and other areas of diagnostics. After graduation you will be equipped with the skills that enable you to join industry, to pursue career as scientist, or to enter the public sector. It also provides a good foundation for those interested in entrepreneurship. MASTER DETAILS PROGRAMME IN BRIEF Programme structure The Master’s degree in Molecular Biotechnology and Diagnostic is a two-year programme amounting 120 ECTS. The degree is comprised of: Major subject studies in Molecular Biotechnology and Diagnostics (89 ECTS) including Master’s thesis and related research project and seminar (55 ECTS) Selectable studies in different thematic areas and special themes (0-16 ECTS) Academic excellence & experience Focus areas of research in the Molecular Biotechnology and Diagnostics programme are novel diagnostic concepts and technologies. The programme focuses also on diagnostics applications in various areas such as medicine, environmental and food quality monitoring. Other research topics of importance... [-]

Master in Genetics and Molecular Biosciences

University of Helsinki
Campus Full time 2 years August 2018 Finland Helsinki

The Master's programme in Genetics and Molecular Biosciences has a multidisciplinary and international teaching staff and research environment, giving you an excellent opportunity to create interdisciplinary and international contacts which will be of great importance for your future career. The Master's programme enables you to participate in international research projects from the beginning of your studies. You will communicate in English, allowing for a smooth transition between international research and specialist environments. [+]

Master of Science in Biochemistry. How do genes regulate the development and functioning of cells, tissues and organisms? How do molecules, cells and tissues function and communicate with each other, and how are their functions studied? These are the key issues for understanding molecular and cellular mechanisms, whose disruption can contribute to the onset and progression of various diseases. Researchers in the fields of genetics, genomics, cellular and developmental biology, biochemistry, structural biology, and biosciences of health are searching for the answers to these questions. Upon completing the Master’s Programme in Genetics and Molecular Biosciences: You will have in-depth knowledge of genetics and molecular biosciences and of the experimental methods used in them. You will understand the characteristics and functions of genes and biomolecules at the cellular, tissue and organism levels. You will be able to analyse scientific knowledge critically and communicate it to different audiences. You will have the ability to produce new scientific information about the properties of genes, biomolecules and cells by means of experimental studies. You will be able to take advantage of existing research data and biological databases. You will have mastered good scientific practice and know how to act accordingly. You will have the capacity for independent project management and problem solving, as well as for maintaining and developing your own expertise. You will have the ability to work in multi-disciplinary and multicultural communities. The University of Helsinki will introduce annual tuition fees to foreign-language Master’s programmes starting on August 1, 2017 or later.... [-]

MS in Biomedical Engineering

Binghamton University
Campus Full time 2 years September 2018 USA Binghamton

Our programs are flexible and affordable options for students dedicated to advancing healthcare and medicine through the understanding of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of human injury and disease. [+]

MS in Biomedical Engineering The Biomedical Engineering Department offers Master of Science (MS) and Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degrees in biomedical engineering. Our programs are flexible and affordable options for students dedicated to advancing healthcare and medicine through the understanding of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of human injury and disease. Our curriculum is highly interdisciplinary, exposing students to faculty from each specialization and fostering theoretical and practical experience from many different perspectives. Funding is offered in the form of teaching, research and graduate assistantship stipends. In many cases teaching assistantships include health insurance and a tuition scholarship. Other funding resources are also available. As one of only 150 biomedical engineering programs in the country, our curriculum is designed to prepare students for academic or industry careers related to medical technology as well as entrepreneurial pursuits in the healthcare field. Other than core classes and electives, master’s students are required to undertake a research thesis project with the guidance of a faculty advisor. Doctoral students are expected to contribute to the advancement of knowledge in their field of study. An accelerated BS + MS degree is also available. Educational Objectives The goal of biomedical engineers is to improve human health through advances in healthcare and medicine. This includes advancing our understanding of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of human injury, disease and the health complications associated with physiologic and sociologic factors such as aging, environment and diet. In this regard, we are living in an exciting time. In the last two decades... [-]

M.Sc. in Leading International Vaccinology Education (Erasmus Mundus)

University of Antwerp
Campus Full time 2 years September 2018 Belgium Antwerp

LIVE is a two-year ERASMUS MUNDUS programme for talented and motivated students interested in multidisciplinary studies in Vaccinology. [+]

Master of Science in Biochemistry. LIVE is a joint project between five European universities. Academic internationality is enriched by a worldwide network of 13 academic universities from Brazil, China, Europe and USA. This programme receives the support of the Erasmus+ Programme of the European Union. The LIVE programme provides you with an advanced understanding of Immunology, Infectiology, Vaccinology, but also legislation, health policy and humanities around vaccinology. LIVE meets the expectations of worldwide partners in the Vaccinology chain to bridge the gap between fundamental Immunology, Infectiology, Humanities and advanced operational Vaccinology. You will be trained in project management and in languages and they will attend a summer school related to vaccines. LIVE is also built to develop your ability in the use of digital tools to gain and distribute knowledge (flipped classroom, digital evaluation, e-learning), but also to interact with social and professional networks (e-Portfolio building) and to respond to public questioning around vaccination (MOOC building). [-]

MSc in Biomedical Sciences (Clinical Biochemistry)

University of Westminster - Faculty of Science and Technology
Campus Full time Part time 1 - 5 years United Kingdom London

This course aims to provide you with the skills and knowledge of theory and practice that will enable you to work as a professional capable of making important contributions in the field of clinical biochemistry. The course aims to further enhance your knowledge of clinical biochemistry, to engage you with contemporary issues and debates within the discipline, and to develop your critical and analytical skills. [+]

This course aims to provide you with the skills and knowledge of theory and practice that will enable you to work as a professional capable of making important contributions in the field of clinical biochemistry. The course aims to further enhance your knowledge of clinical biochemistry, to engage you with contemporary issues and debates within the discipline, and to develop your critical and analytical skills. The taught programme contains specific modules in Clinical Biochemistry, such as endocrinology and metabolism and diagnostic clinical biochemistry, which you can apply to diagnostic biomedicine, as well as offering you a choice of modules related to molecular diagnostics or haematology. Modules The following modules are indicative of what you will study on this course. Core modules Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism This module aims to emphasise the intellectual skills and knowledge you require to understand endocrine function, assays of hormone concentration, pathologies and their laboratory investigation. Emphasis is placed on developing a deep understanding of the cellular and biochemical processes which underlie pathology Diagnostic Clinical Biochemistry An in depth study of the aetiology, pathogenesis and laboratory investigation of selected pathologies and their laboratory investigation. Principles of key and current analytical methods in the field are also included as well as the latest developments in diagnostic clinical biochemistry. Molecular Science and Diagnostics This module is designed to make you aware of the impact of molecular biology on the diagnosis of human diseases. You will critically review the technologies and determine the advantages and disadvantages associated with each... [-]

MSc Toxicology and Risk Assessment

Brunel University: College of Health and Life Sciences
Campus Full time Part time 1 - 2 years September 2018 United Kingdom Uxbridge + 1 more

The Toxicology and Risk Assessment Masters course caters for the current global need for toxicologists and ecotoxicologists who are competent in conducting hazard and risk evaluation of chemical substances. [+]

Master of Science in Biochemistry. The Toxicology and Risk Assessment Masters course caters for the current global need for toxicologists and ecotoxicologists who are competent in conducting hazard and risk evaluation of chemical substances. The course is designed to train students for a career as registered toxicologists. It is suitable for graduates interested in obtaining a qualification in human and environmental health as well as students already in full time employment working for industry, contract laboratories or government agencies, who require either formal qualifications or intend to revalidate their qualifications in toxicology. This will contribute to their continuing professional development (CPD) and towards the requirements for the UK Register of Toxicologists. We also offer some of the MSc modules as standalone CPD courses. Aims The course has been specifically designed to equip students with the skills to critically evaluate and understand chemical hazards, as well as make informed decisions in terms of potential health risks for both humans and wildlife. You will be provided with an advanced, multi-disciplinary and current understanding of the effects of chemicals on human and environmental health and the consequent impact on chemical risk assessment and regulation. Course Content The MSc in Toxicology and Risk Assessment comprises a total of eight taught modules, including six compulsory modules and two (out of three) optional modules. Special Features Flexibility We provide flexible options to attend our course, in a way that best suits the individual student. In addition to an MSc in Toxicology and Risk Assessment, students can... [-]

Master in Biomedical Science - Clinical Biochemistry (MSc)

Middlesex University London
Campus Full time Part time 1 - 2 years October 2017 United Kingdom London UK Online + 2 more

Our Biomedical Science courses have a burgeoning international reputation, due to our world-class research in areas including biomarkers, public health and biomodelling. Our Centre for Investigative and Diagnostic Oncology has pioneered techniques for cancer diagnosis and treatment. [+]

Why study MSc Clinical Biochemistry at Middlesex? Our Biomedical Science courses have a burgeoning international reputation, due to our world-class research in areas including biomarkers, public health and biomodelling. Our Centre for Investigative and Diagnostic Oncology has pioneered techniques for cancer diagnosis and treatment. Our course has a strong practical element, with an emphasis on developing laboratory skills and gaining hands-on experience of diagnostic techniques. Our teaching and research facilities surpass those at some UK medical schools, with £3 million specialist labs equipped with the most up-to-date technology- the perfect place to work on your own research project. You'll learn to use cutting-edge equipment such as MALDI-TOF mass spectrometers and flow cytometers; we have a molecular biology laboratory for techniques such as DNA sequencing, real-time PCR, electrophoresis and HPLC, fully-equipped proteomics facilities, confocal microscopy and an incredibly modern cell culture facility. Course highlights - All our teaching staff are involved in research and many are pioneers in their own field. Course leader Dr Frank Hills, a former postdoctoral scientist at Imperial College and clinical scientist at St Bartholomew's Hospital, has published many high-profile articles on a range of areas including endocrinology, immunology and reproductive science, while Dr Ajit Shah is a former principal scientist at GlaxoSmithKline. - The course is accredited by the Institute of Biomedical Science, so on graduation you'll have fulfilled the academic requirement for Licentiate membership of the institute; you can apply for student membership while you study. - We work with London hospitals, NHS laboratories, other... [-]

MSc in Organic Synthesis / Medicinal Chemistry

Linköping University
Campus Full time 2 years September 2018 Sweden Linköping

This programme provides knowledge on the design, synthesis and evaluation of low-weight organic substances. It also covers protein chemistry and biomolecular design, preparing you for a career in the pharmaceutical industry. [+]

This programme provides knowledge on the design, synthesis and evaluation of low-weight organic substances. It also covers protein chemistry and biomolecular design, preparing you for a career in the pharmaceutical industry.

Biologically active substances with low molecular weight represent the core of life-science research. Knowledge of molecular structures and their properties are crucial to our understanding of vast scientific areas, from pharmaceutically active compounds in designer drugs to organic electronics and their incorporation into diagnostic tools such as biosensors. Our research facilities are well equipped with all the necessary analytical and diagnostic tools found in industrial research facilities, which will advance your practical capabilities.... [-]