BSc in Nursing Assisting

Top 22 BScs in Nursing Assisting 2017

Nursing Assisting

A Bachelor of Science (BSc) is an academic degree awarded to students who fulfill the necessary coursework and requirements. A student is able to major in several different scientific subjects in order to achieve this degree. It typically takes three or four years to earn this degree.

What is a BSc in Nursing Assisting? This degree involves coursework regarding several medical and scientific topics. Nursing science, biology, anatomy, and other related sciences are studied in depth. Leadership and management in the context of healthcare are learned. Nursing research, including quantitative and qualitative approaches, is taught in this program, as well as healthcare policy and technology.

The BSc in Nursing Assisting program equips students with vast medical knowledge and exceptional leadership skills. These skills are beneficial to have in the medical job market.

Earning a BSc in Nursing Assisting will cost different amounts depending on what school you attend. The biggest factors that cause differentiations in tuition costs are the length of the degree program, the location of study, and the institution itself. To find more detailed information you should ask the admissions office of your desired school.

A common occupation for this degree is a nursing assistant. Nursing assistants help patients with daily activities including bathing, helping them eat, taking vital signs, collecting information about treatment plans, and changing bed sheets. Some who graduate with this degree may go onto become nurses. Nurses give treatments, administer medicine, perform minor operations, and provide support to their patients. Some nurses take on advisory or educational roles. Nurses and assistants may work in hospices, hospitals, or private homes.

Getting a career in the medical field can be tough, but a BSc in Nursing can help you get the success you need. Search for your program below and contact directly the admission office of the school of your choice by filling in the lead form.

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Bachelor of Science in Nursing

Kaplan University Online
Online Part time September 2017 USA USA Online

A Bachelor of Science in Nursing degree could help registered nurses (RNs) seek broader professional responsibilities and career opportunities. If you are an RN and want to advance your career, Kaplan University’s online Bachelor of Science in Nursing completion program could help you pursue new opportunities in specialized nursing and nursing management [+]

BScs in Nursing Assisting. A Bachelor of Science in Nursing degree could help registered nurses (RNs) seek broader professional responsibilities and career opportunities. If you are an RN and want to advance your career, Kaplan University’s online Bachelor of Science in Nursing completion program could help you pursue new opportunities in specialized nursing and nursing management.* Study to enhance your critical thinking skills and clinical judgment to better meet the demands of patient care while you prepare for your future in nursing. The baccalaureate degree in nursing at Kaplan University is accredited by the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (www.aacn.nche.edu/ccne-accreditation). This program may not be available in all states. Speak with an Admissions Advisor for more information. *Kaplan University cannot guarantee employment or career advancement. Additional certification or licensing may be required to work in certain fields. Although certain programs at Kaplan University are designed to prepare students to take various certification or licensing exams, the University cannot guarantee the student will be eligible to sit for or pass those exams. In some cases, field experience, additional coursework, and/or background checks may be necessary to be eligible to take or to successfully pass the exams. Students should research the requirements in the state in which they intend to seek employment [-]

Bachelor of Science (Hons.) in Nursing

Nilai University
Campus Full time 4 years July 2017 Malaysia Nilai

Nilai University’s B.Sc. (Hons) in Nursing is approved by the Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education and the Malaysian Nursing Board (under the Ministry of Health). The programme will equip you with the theoretical knowledge and practical skills in the areas of health, behavioural and nursing sciences as well as focusing on management and leadership skills. Teaching will be conducted through lectures, laboratory classes and hands-on practical sessions at both public and private healthcare institutions. Upon the completion of this programme, you will find yourself well-prepared for a professional career in nursing and management. [+]

Nilai University’s B.Sc. (Hons) in Nursing is approved by the Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education and the Malaysian Nursing Board (under the Ministry of Health). The programme will equip you with the theoretical knowledge and practical skills in the areas of health, behavioural and nursing sciences as well as focusing on management and leadership skills. Teaching will be conducted through lectures, laboratory classes and hands-on practical sessions at both public and private healthcare institutions. Upon the completion of this programme, you will find yourself well-prepared for a professional career in nursing and management. Programme Pathways Entry Requirements STPM or equivalent 5Cs including Bahasa Malaysia and Mathematics (Elementary or Additional or Modern), AND (1 General Science / Biology / Chemistry and pass Biology / Physics and pass Biology), AND credit in 2 other subjects AND pass English AND either one of the following: STPM or equivalent Minimum CGPA 2.50 Foundation / Matriculation / Diploma in Science Minimum CGPA 2.50 with MUET Band 3 IELTS Band 5.5 TOEFL Paper based: 515 / Internet based: 80 FOR INTERNATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS SPM or equivalent* 5Cs including Mathematics (Elementary or Additional or Modern), AND (1 General Science / Biology / Chemistry and pass Biology / Physics and pass Biology), AND credit in three 3 other subjects AND either one of the following: STPM or equivalent Minimum CGPA 2.50 Foundation / Matriculation / Diploma in Science Minimum CGPA 2.50 with IELTS Band 5.5 TOEFL Paper based: 515 / Internet based: 80 For other qualifications, please consult our... [-]

Bachelor of Science in Nursing

Macao Polytechnic Institute
Campus Full time 4 years August 2017 Macau

The Bachelor of Science in Nursing program aims to foster graduates to be qualified care professionals, and providing safe and effective health care services to people. [+]

BScs in Nursing Assisting. Objectives The Bachelor of Science in Nursing program aims to foster graduates to be qualified care professionals, and providing safe and effective health care services to people. Career Prospects The Bachelor of Science programme in Nursing is recognised by the Macao SAR Government and students graduating from the programme are eligible for registration as practising Registered Nurses in Macao. Graduates mainly work at the hospital and health centres under the Health Bureau while some are employed in private hospitals, clinics, rehabilitation centres, and other educational or social welfare organisations. Study Plan Year 1 Subjects Complete 1 subject from the elective group A to obtain 2 credits COMP1101 Information Technology Fundamentals ENGL1101 English I ENGL1102 English II IFUN1200 Clinical Placement (Fundamental Nursing) NAAP1101 Anatomy and Physiology NBHA1102 Basic Health Assessment NEAL1101 Nursing Ethics and Legal Issues NFUN1101 Fundamental Nursing I NFUN1102 Fundamental Nursing II NMIC1101 Microbiology NPAT1102 Pathophysiology NPHA1102 Pharmacology Year 2 Subjects Complete 1 subject from the elective group B to obtain 2 credits ENGL2101 English III ENGL2102 English IV IMAS2200 Clinical Placement (Medical-Surgical Nursing I) IOAG2200 Clinical Placement (Obstetric and Gynecological) IPED2200 Clinical Placement (Pediatric) NMAS2101 Medical-Surgical Nursing I NMAS2102 Medical-Surgical Nursing II NNUT2101 Clinical Nutrition NOAG2101 Obstetric and Gynecological Nursing NPED2101 Pediatric Nursing NPSY2102 Applied Psychology Year 3 Subjects Complete 1 subject from the elective group C to obtain 2 credits ENGL3101 English V IGER3200 Clinical Placement (Geriatric) IMAS3200 Clinical Placement (Medical-Surgical II) IMEN3200 Clinical Placement (Mental Health) NENG3102 Medical English NGER3101 Geriatric Nursing... [-]

Bachelor of Science in Nursing

European University Cyprus
Campus Full time 4 years September 2017 Cyprus Nicosia

The main objective of the program is to train professional pluripotent Nurses of General Nursing Science in order to become capable to contribute in the prevention and restoration of health of people of all ages, as well as the maintenance and promotion of human health and wellness. The program’s students are able to obtain theoretical and laboratory knowledge of high caliber as well as advanced clinical skills that enable them to practice their profession independently or in collaboration with other health care professionals in Cyprus and all EU countries. [+]

The main objective of the program is to train professional pluripotent Nurses of General Nursing Science in order to become capable to contribute in the prevention and restoration of health of people of all ages, as well as the maintenance and promotion of human health and wellness. The program’s students are able to obtain theoretical and laboratory knowledge of high caliber as well as advanced clinical skills that enable them to practice their profession independently or in collaboration with other health care professionals in Cyprus and all EU countries. Approval of the Nursing Degree by the European Commission The Nursing Degree at European University Cyprus is recognized by the European Commission as an approved program, covered by Directive 2005/36/EC on the mutual recognition of professional qualifications between Member States. Graduate Nurses with the B.Sc. degree in Nursing from European University Cyprus, are therefore able to exercise their profession in all European Union member states. Registration with the Cyprus Council of Nurses and Midwives Graduates of the European University Cyprus "Nursing" program are eligible to register with the Nurses and Midwives Registry through application to the Cyprus Nursing and Midwifery Council. Objectives & Outcomes General Objectives To develop the student’s capacity to think, write and speak effectively and creatively; To develop an appreciation of and respect for social, moral and ethical values as the foundation of one’s relationship to others and one’s responsibilities to the community; To develop the students analytical, decision-making and communication competencies together with those qualities of self-reliance,... [-]

Nursing

International University Alliance
Campus September 2017 USA Boston

The professional nursing curriculum provides undergraduate education for students wishing to prepare for a career as a professional nurse. Graduates are awarded a Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) degree and are eligible to write the NCLEX-RN for licensure as a registered nurse. [+]

BScs in Nursing Assisting. Nursing The professional nursing curriculum provides undergraduate education for students wishing to prepare for a career as a professional nurse. Graduates are awarded a Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) degree and are eligible to write the NCLEX-RN for licensure as a registered nurse. A pre-professional program in Nursing Science is required of students seeking admission to the professional curriculum. The first two years of course work are designated as Pre-Nursing (PNUR). Although the SON does not offer a separate program for 2nd degree students, students with a bachelor’s degree in other disciplines are encouraged to apply to the professional program. Pre-requisites for second degree students are listed below. The upper-division Professional Nursing Curriculum (NURS) requires five semesters of study, including classroom, laboratory, and clinical experiences. [-]

BSc Physician Assistantship

Presbyterian University College
Campus Full time 4 years September 2017 Ghana Agogo Akropong + 1 more

This is a four year programme leading to the award BSc Physician Assistant and is based at the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital. [+]

Overview This is a four year programme leading to the award BSc Physician Assistant and is based at the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital. Admission Requirements WASSCE / SSSCE Applicants Applicants must have aggregate 24 or better in six subjects (3 core and 3 electives). The core subjects and minimum grades are: grade D (C4, C5, C6) or better in Mathematics, English Language and integrated Science. The Elective subjects should include Credit in 3 Science subjects, i.e. Physics, Chemistry, Biology or Mathematics. Advanced Level Certificate Applicants GCE candidates must have five credits at the Ordinary Level Examination or equivalent including English Language, Mathematics and either Physics, Chemistry and Biology or Agricultural Science or (ii) General science and any other subject. In addition, candidates should obtain three passes at the GCE advance level or equivalent in Chemistry, Physics or Mathematics and Biology or Agricultural Science. Advanced Diploma / Diploma Applicants Diploma holders in Physician Assistantship with a minimum of B+ average/second class upper and three years working experience in addition to the basic qualification at WASSCE/SSSCE/OL may be admitted to the Third Year of the programme. All other diploma candidates would be admitted to the second year. Mature Applicants Mature Applicants must be nurses with SRN or RGN certificates. Candidates must have attained the age of 25 years or above with five (5) credits in five (5) GCE ‘O’Levels or six passes at the WASSCE / SSSCE subjects including English Language, Mathematics and Science International Students International students may be admitted on the... [-]

Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BScN)

Dayananda Sagar University
Campus Full time 4 years July 2017 India Bangalore

The undergraduate program prepares the students to be qualified nurses with adequate theoretical and clinical exposure by adopting modern teaching and learning methodologies. [+]

BScs in Nursing Assisting. Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BScN) Dayananda Sagar College of Nursing Sciences was established in the year 2002. The college is attached to Sagar Hospital – a multi-specialty hospital within the campus for clinical practicum. Overview: The undergraduate program prepares the students to be qualified nurses with adequate theoretical and clinical exposure by adopting modern teaching and learning methodologies. The Post Graduate program prepares the students to develop excellent skills in clinical areas, ensures confidence to work in challenging environment and also enable to work independently as advanced nurse practitioner or nurse researcher. Throughout the course students will learn to practice person-centered nursing in a compassionate and respectful way that promotes dignity and well-being. Graduate nurses will develop the ability to act with professionalism and integrity, and work within agreed professional, ethical and legal frameworks and processes to maintain and improve standards of health care. Eligibility Facilities & Features Physical Facilities: Class Room Facilities: Well furnished, ventilated and spacious classrooms provide ambience facilitating teaching-learning process. Classrooms are provided with facilities for utilizing modern educational technologies. Library: Library has a vast collection of latest edition books as well as National and International Journals. It is also provided with digital facility for students and teachers to access e-journals for continuous upgradation of knowledge. Labs: Full-fledged laboratories with adequate supplies and equipments for each concerned department are made available for hands on training aimed at skill development. Clinical Facilities: The Institution is attached to two multi-specialty parent hospitals which... [-]

BSc in Nursing

Christian Service University College
Campus Full time September 2017 Ghana Kumasi

Are you an ambitious student? And looking for an unique opportunity to attain a specialized qualification in BSc. Nursing? Find out whether this program match your ambitions for a successful future. [+]

CSUC offers high quality four-year undergraduate programs in different fields. These unique English-taught programs provide an outstanding academic foundation. In these programs you will work together with your classmates from all around the world, receive instruction from excellent researchers and lecturers and develop your ability to conduct scientific and impactful research. Are you an ambitious student? And looking for an unique opportunity to attain a specialized qualification in BSc. Nursing? Find out whether this program match your ambitions for a successful future. Fees For International Students 2017/2018 Academic Year Programmes Tuition Fees(USD$) Other Charge(USD$) SRC Dues(USD$) Total(USD$) BSc in Nursing(Freshmen) 1,556.00 225.00 12.50 1,793.50 BSc in Nursing(Continuing Students) 1,514.00 " " 12.50 1,526.50 BSc in Nursing-Level 400 Regular(Continuing Students) 1,545.00 " " 12.50 1,557.50 " " " " " " " " " " Other Charges(Freshmen Only) USD($) Student ID Card 3.00 University Cloth 19.00 Verification of Results 9.00 Medical Examination 14.00 Stay Permit 180.00 " " 225.00 Payment Instructions: a) Pay a minimum of 50% of fees on or before registration b) Payment should be made to Christian Service University College Account at any branch of the Societe Generale Bank in Ghana c) Send a scanned copy of the Bank Advice to finance@csuc.edu.gh [-]

BSc in Nursing

Northern Arizona University
Campus Full time 4 years September 2017 USA Flagstaff

This popular four-year program is offered on four campuses around the state of Arizona. After a very competitive admission process, nursing courses are taken in sequence over five semesters. Graduates are eligible to take the national licensing exam for registered nurses (NCLEX-RN). [+]

BScs in Nursing Assisting. This popular four-year program is offered on four campuses around the state of Arizona. After a very competitive admission process, nursing courses are taken in sequence over five semesters. Graduates are eligible to take the national licensing exam for registered nurses (NCLEX-RN). This program is accredited by the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE). What Can I Do with a Bachelor of Science in Nursing The high-tech world of health care will always be driven by the human heart. If a gifted nurse has helped you, you know that one person truly can make a difference. What you may not know is that nurses outnumber all other health care practitioners. And the demand grows. Our programs provide the tools you need for a successful nursing career. You can advance in dozens of directions. Our hands-on curriculum covers health maintenance, disease prevention, primary care assessment, and evidence-based research. We emphasize rural and urban health care needs in the culturally diverse Southwest. We offer a traditional BSN program as well as an Accelerated Second Degree option for students with a bachelor's degree in another field. This accelerated program is a 12 month program. The traditional BSN is a five semester (2.5 year) program. A new program is available for prospective associate degree nursing students selected in a competitive admission process with their Arizona community college. This program will enable them to complete many of the baccalaureate nursing courses (professional requirements) as a cohort while completing their associate degree... [-]

BSc (Hons) in Nursing - Adult

University of Stirling
Campus Full time 4 years September 2017 United Kingdom Stirling

Your Nursing degree course will provide you with opportunities to work with a range of professionals, groups and individuals. You will support people and their families during periods of ill health, promote health and wellbeing and care for those with enduring and/or life-limiting illness. [+]

Adult nurses have a significant role in caring for people and their family within a wide range of settings. There is a great variety of careers available within adult nursing and skills learned are valued around the world. Your Nursing degree course will provide you with opportunities to work with a range of professionals, groups and individuals. You will support people and their families during periods of ill health, promote health and wellbeing and care for those with enduring and/or life-limiting illness. Today’s nurses are required to assess patients’ needs, care for them and support both the patients and their families, while playing a full and crucial role in the wider healthcare team. Our nursing course is designed to give you the skills and confidence necessary to fulfil that role in the healthcare teams of tomorrow. Careers in nursing are dynamic as the healthcare sector responds to developments in health and emerging health priorities, rising expectations among users and carers and changing societal attitudes. Through the use of clinical scenarios and extensive skills training, we will prepare you for working in an ever-changing healthcare environment. You will achieve your Adult Nursing degree within our 330-acre, multi-award winning campus in Stirling. From 2017 entry onwards nurse education at the Highland Campus in Inverness and the Western Isles Campus in Stornoway is now conducted by the University of the Highlands and Islands. Top Reasons To Study With Us We have excellent relationships with each of the main partner NHS Boards associated with... [-]

Bachelor In Physician Assistance

Carl Remigius Medical School
Campus Full time 8 semesters October 2017 Germany Frankfurt am Main Munich Hamburg Idstein Cologne + 4 more

The course Physician Assistance (B.Sc.) is a in Germany new, attractive alternative to medical school. The Bachelor program qualifies you to exercise delegated medical activities. So that you are an important link for the professionals involved in patient care, increase the efficiency of processes in hospitals and make a valuable contribution within the framework ... [+]

BScs in Nursing Assisting. The course Physician Assistance (B.Sc.) is a in Germany new, attractive alternative to medical school. The Bachelor program qualifies you to exercise delegated medical activities. So that you are an important link for the professionals involved in patient care, increase the efficiency of processes in hospitals and make a valuable contribution in the context of quality assurance. The Studies Duration: 8 semesters Baseline: September Degree: Bachelor of Science The generalized training with extensive medical expertise and practical skills will enable you to work in different medical disciplines. Fields of application are found for example in hospitals and polyclinics, clinics, medical centers, medical centers and other outpatient facilities. As Physician Assistant They are allocated in the medical service, the ultimate responsibility of the physician remains unaffected. The degree program priorities are based on those of the medical school. Content of pre-clinical, clinical and internship be considered. Among the key subjects include anatomy, pathophysiology, examination procedures and disciplinary and case specific action in clinical medicine. Under supervision perform inter alia the following activities: Taking the history and performing a physical examination Elaboration of the suspected diagnosis Making minor interventions Assistant in surgery Handle administrative tasks Medical documentation Interface communication Assistance in patient counseling and education Due to the assignment to the medical service as a highly qualified discharge to the medical profession, the degree program focuses analogous to those of medical studies by the contents of pre-clinical, clinical and internship be considered. A characteristic feature is the close... [-]

Bachelor of Science in Nursing

Carson-Newman University
Campus Full time September 2017 USA Jefferson City USA Online

The Traditional Nursing Program at Carson-Newman University will enable you to obtain a Bachelor of Science in Nursing degree. The curriculum is designed to give you a balance of general education courses along with nursing courses. [+]

Bachelor of Science in Nursing Traditional Option The Traditional Nursing Program at Carson-Newman University will enable you to obtain a Bachelor of Science in Nursing degree. The curriculum is designed to give you a balance of general education courses along with nursing courses. You will begin with three semesters of foundational courses and then, in the spring of your sophomore year, begin clinical nursing courses that will prepare you for the state licensure examination for Registered Nurses. Baccalaureate education in nursing is comprised of liberal arts and sciences, humanities and nursing. The purpose is to prepare a professional who functions autonomously with a focus on the health care needs of clients of all ages in a variety of settings. The baccalaureate nurse explains the rationale for nursing actions and collaborates with the client to determine acceptable outcomes. An integral part of baccalaureate preparation in nursing is the ability to apply knowledge to the promotion of client health. Admission Criteria All students, regardless of track, must meet the following admission criteria: Cumulative GPA 2.75 or higher. Completion of prerequisite courses with a C or better with a maximum of one retake per course. Biology 207, 208, 316 Chemistry 101 Child and Family Studies 206 English 101, 201 Foods and Nutrition 214 Cumulative GPA of 2.5 of the following science courses: BIOL 207, 208, 316, and CHEM 101. Successful completion of criminal background check. Accelerated Option The Accelerated Nursing Program at Carson-Newman University will enable you to obtain a Bachelor of Science... [-]

Bachelor of Science in Nursing (RN to BSN)

Liberty University Online
Online Full time September 2017 USA Lynchburg

As a practicing registered nurse, you can advance from R.N. to B.S.N with a Bachelor of Science in Nursing from Liberty University Online. Enrich your current practice through a fully accredited online program, and receive career-ready training taught from a Christian worldview. [+]

BScs in Nursing Assisting. As a practicing registered nurse, you can advance from R.N. to B.S.N with a Bachelor of Science in Nursing from Liberty University Online. Enrich your current practice through a fully accredited online program, and receive career-ready training taught from a Christian worldview. The program emphasizes written communication and research skills, leadership and management skills, and caring for the community. This program is only available to current registered nurses. Potential Career Options: Nursing Practice in a variety of settings, Community Agencies, International Health, Long-term Care Agencies and Rehabilitation Centers, Nursing Research, Staff Nursing, Leadership Roles Non-Discrimination Policy [-]

R.N. to B.S.N. Online

Goshen College Online
Online Full time 18 months September 2017 USA Goshen

The 38 credit hour program is designed for registered nurses with an associate’s degree from an accredited college or university. [+]

If you already have an associate’s degree, this is the 100% online program for you. The 38 credit hour program is designed for registered nurses with an associate’s degree from an accredited college or university. At Goshen College, you can complete your Online RN to Bachelor of Science in nursing degree as you continue to work full time. To enroll you must have an active nursing license. Clinical hours are mostly completed in your place of employment. Key Distinctives Quality: Regionally accredited, not-for-profit, liberal arts institution with a 122 year heritage Convenience: 100% online and asynchronous with no required log in times Flexibility: Attend full time and complete the program in as few as 18 months Affordability: Tuition as low as $445 per credit hour with financial aid available to those who qualify Why is a B.S.N. so important? Whether you are an experienced RN with years of nursing practice or a new graduate of an associate degree program, hospitals are now requiring that you complete your BSN in 3-5 years. With the Institute of Medicine calling for 80% of the nursing workforce to hold at least a bachelor’s degree by 2020, nursing education has become a national priority. Accreditations The RN-BSN program at Goshen College is accredited by the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education, One Dupont Circle, NW, Suite 530, Washington, DC 20036, 202-887-6791. Goshen College is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission of the North Central Association, 30 North LaSalle Street, Suite 2400, Chicago, Ill. 60602, (312) 263-0456.... [-]

RN to BSN Online

Pacific Union College Online
Online Full time Part time September 2017 USA Angwin

Pacific Union College is excited to introduce a new online degree program currently being offered to Registered Nurses. Pacific Union College’s RN-BSN online degree prepares you to become a leader in the field of nursing. [+]

BScs in Nursing Assisting. Earn Your RN-BSN Degree Completely Online! Pacific Union College is excited to introduce a new online degree program currently being offered to Registered Nurses. Pacific Union College’s RN-BSN online degree prepares you to become a leader in the field of nursing. This program is designed to enhance skills attained from professional nursing experience and previous academic work. Courses are 100% online and prepare you by covering a wide variety of important skills such as: Evaluating and utilizing research Managing and leading in the healthcare workplace Providing care in community and public health settings Expanding knowledge of various topics of emerging interest and applicability to the nursing profession The RN-BSN online degree program is for working Registered Nurses who want a convenient online learning experience grounded in a Christian worldview. The program is engineered to be flexible, so you can take a short academic break if needed and re-enter the program with minimal disruption to your academic plan. If you need to switch from full-time to part-time or vice versa, your dedicated faculty advisor will gladly assist with that transition and provide a roadmap towards graduation. At PUC, it is our goal to ensure you have the support you need to reach graduation. The RN-BSN online degree program encourages collaboration and real-world experience. Through PUC’s unique Virtual Campus, students are connected not only to their coursework, but also to faculty, advisors and the extended PUC community. Students will work with one another on group projects and participate... [-]